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Ocean Acidification (Effects on Marine Animals: Echinoderms)

Click on the links below to access reviews of the scientific literature on this topic that have been published since the 2009 NIPCC report.

Purple Sea Urchins: Primed for Rapid Evolution in Acidifying Seas (18 September 2013)
Ocean Acidification: Separating the Winners from the Losers (31 July 2013)
How Southern Ocean Echinoderm Larvae Respond to Elevated CO2 (25 June 2013)
A Tale of Non-Obligate Macroalgal Calcifers, Sea Urchins and CO2 (20 March 2013)
Ocean Acidification Effects on Two Predator-Prey Relationships (25 December 2012)
Environmental Change and Potential Trophic Mismatches (24 October 2012)
Occasionally-Slowed Organismal Development in Low-pH Seawater (4 September 2012)
Acidified Seawater: Does It Always Depress Calcification? (27 June 2012)
Sub-Antarctic Sea Urchin Larval Responses to Lower Seawater pH (12 June 2012)
What is the Best Frame of Reference for Evaluating the Biological Consequences of Ocean Acidification? (18 April 2012)
Sea Stars - with Missing Arms! - Experiencing Ocean Acidification (24 January 2012)
Earth's Marine Life Not Going "Quietly Into the Night" of Ocean Acidification (22 November 2011)
Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Sea Urchins (19 October 2011)
Sea Urchin Larvae Living in Periodically Low-pH Seawater (16 August 2011)
Sea Urchin Responses to Ocean Acidification and Warming (7 June 2011)
Ocean pH Tolerance in Two Important Antarctic Invertebrates (24 May 2011)
Elevated CO2 and Early Life Stages of Mediterranean Sea Urchins (3 May 2011)
Responses of 18 Benthic Marine Calcifiers to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (15 Sep 2010)
The Fate of Juvenile Sea Stars in an "Acidified" Ocean (25 August 2010)
On the Fertilization of Sea Urchin Eggs (14 June 2010)