Pests of Pests of Blue Willow Trees in a Potentially Warmer World
Baffoe, K., Dalin, P., Nordlander, G. and Stenberg, J.A. 2012. Importance of temperature for the performance and biocontrol efficiency of the parasitoid Perilitus brevicollis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Salix. BioControl 57: 611-618.
In describing their results, the four Swedish scientists report that parasitism had no impact on herbivory at 10°C; but they found that "parasitoid performance (survival and development rate) generally increased with increasing temperature up to 20°C." In addition, they learned that "the feeding capacity of the studied parasitized herbivores is reduced more at high than low temperatures." Such findings, in the words of Baffoe et al., "suggest that P. brevicollis should become a better biocontrol agent if temperatures increase," which transformation should have substantial positive consequences for willow trees in northern and central Europe, as well as for the enterprise of their commercial harvesting.
Bjorkman, C., Dalin, P. and Eklund, K. 2003. Generalist natural enemies of a willow leaf beetle (Phratora vulgatissima): abundance and feeding habits. Journal of Insect Behavior 16: 747-764.
Dalin, P. 2011. Diapause induction and termination in a commonly univoltine leaf beetle (Phratora vulgatissima). Insect Science 18: 443-450.
Peacock, L., Herrick, S. and Brain, P. 1999. Spatio-temporal dynamics of willow beetle (Phratora vulgatissima) in short-rotation coppice willows grown as monocultures or a genetically diverse mixture. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 1: 287-296.