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April 2011 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Not All Coral Bleaching Is Bad (5 Apr 2011)
We must "move beyond the most common perception that discolored corals are always less healthy," because "nonlethal (and arguably sublethal) bleaching events are part of a natural rhythm that enables corals to successfully respond to environmental variability"... Read More
Global Warming and Tropical Cyclones of the Western North Pacific (5 Apr 2011)
In spite of a "remarkable warming," the authors of this study determined that "the frequency of TC against the background of global warming has decreased with time"... Read More
CO2-Related Genotypic Variation in White Spruce (5 Apr 2011)
Observations suggest that highly-CO2-responsive genotypes of a wide variety of earth's plants -- from food crops to lumber crops -- could well be selected to take advantage of their genetic ability to optimize their growth in response to projected future increases in the air's CO2 content... Read More
Nine Centuries of Warm-Season Temperatures in West-Central Scandinavia (5 Apr 2011)
Contrary to the worn-out claim of the world's climate alarmists that the high temperatures of the past couple of decades have been unprecedented relative to those of the past couple of millennia, this impressive April-September temperature reconstruction from west-central Scandinavia tells a much different story for this particular part of the world... Read More
Growth Responses of Populus euphratica Trees to Concomitant Changes in Groundwater Depth and Atmospheric CO2 Content (5 Apr 2011)
As groundwater depth declines and riparian trees find it more difficult to obtain the water they need to survive, are the positive effects atmospheric CO2 enrichment enhanced or diminished?... Read More
Humans Are Destroying Earth's Coral Reefs (5 Apr 2011)
But not in the way climate alarmists want us to believe... Read More
Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and the Growth of Corn Under Various Degrees of Water Stress (5 Apr 2011)
Under increased CO2 concentrations, "less water will be required for corn plants than at present." And since water is already a scarce commodity in many parts of the world -- and will only become more scarce, more expensive and more difficult to obtain in the days and years ahead -- this finding is extremely welcome news... Read More
Model Assessments of Warming-Induced Changes in the Frequency of Northern Hemisphere Summer Cyclones (6 Apr 2011)
Projections obtained from sixteen state-of-the-art climate models show "little consistency," indicating that "care is required when interpreting projected changes in summer weather systems"... Read More
Alaskan Trumpeter Swans in a Warming World (6 Apr 2011)
How did they respond to the increase in temperature experienced between 1968 and 2005?... Read More
The Terrestrial Carbon Balance of East Asia (6 Apr 2011)
Between 1901 and 2002, modeled Net Primary Productivity (NPP) "significantly increased by 5.5-8.5 Tg C per year (15-20% growth)," and this increase in NPP "caused an increased cumulated terrestrial carbon storage of about 5-11 Pg C," about 50-70% of which "is located in vegetation biomass." And, "40-60% of the accumulated carbon uptake of the 20th century is credited to the period of 1980-2002"... Read More
Are Economic Losses from Extreme Weather Events Increasing? (6 Apr 2011)
Not according to the results of this new study... Read More
Black Carbon at the Top of the World (6 Apr 2011)
Reducing biofuel sources of black carbon emissions may be an extremely worthy goal... Read More
The 1470-Year Climate Oscillation of the North Pacific Gyre (6 Apr 2011)
How does it compare with the 1500-year-repeatable Bond events of the North Atlantic?... Read More
Sea Level Rise Around Mainland Australia (12 Apr 2011)
Although the four data sets employed in this study all show short-term accelerations in sea level rise near the end of the 20th century, the century as a whole was one of decelerating sea level rise, which is not exactly in harmony with the climate-alarmist contention that the 20th century experienced a warming that rose at a rate and to a height that were both unprecedented over the past millennium or more... Read More
The Carbon Sink of an Old-Growth Forest in China (12 Apr 2011)
The old notion of old trees contributing next to nothing to global carbon sequestration is manifestly invalid... Read More
Excess Winter Mortality in Various Developed Countries and Its Implications for Mitigation Policies (12 Apr 2011)
A general warming may reduce mortality and extend life expectancies, at least in the temperate and higher latitudes... Read More
The Response of High Arctic Tundra to Long-Term Warming (12 Apr 2011)
Long-term warming in the High Arctic will likely enhance plant cover... Read More
Tropical Cyclones of the North Indian Ocean (13 Apr 2011)
Results suggest a "decreasing trend in the frequency of storms over the Bay of Bengal, contrary to the popular belief that there will be an increase"... Read More
Evolutionary Responses of a C3 Perennial Herb to Elevated CO2 (13 Apr 2011)
Both "phenotypic and genetic differences have occurred between high and normal CO2 populations"... Read More
Snowfall and Snowstorms are Not Decreasing as Predicted by Climate Projections (13 Apr 2011)
Since 2007 heavy snowstorms and all-time seasonal records for stations and the Northern Hemisphere have challenged the predictions by the IPCC, NOAA CCSP, the Hadley Center/UKMO and environmental groups like the Union of Concerned Scientists that snowfall and snowstorms were growing increasingly rare and extent was declining. An analysis of pace and time distribution of winter storms by Changnon in 2008, NOAA weekly snow extent data from satellite as compiled by Rutgers Snow Lab and an objective snowstorm index developed by NOAA NCDC gives us a chance to test that hypothesis... Read More
Precipitation Events in Northern New England, USA (13 Apr 2011)
Are they becoming more extreme?... Read More
Coral Disease in a Warmer World (13 Apr 2011)
Researchers emphasize "the need to move away from projections based on historic trends toward predictions that account for novel behavior of ecosystems under climate change"... Read More
The Importance of the Oceans and Topography in Climate Simulations (19 Apr 2011)
Wilson et al. (2010) use a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to examine the impact of mountains and the oceans in simulating the regular occurrence of our planet's cyclonic storm systems. They find that in order to achieve more faithful model simulations of climate, a dynamic ocean and the proper representation of topography are crucial... Read More
Growth Response of Radish to Super Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (19 Apr 2011)
How high can the plant's growth rate possibly rise???... Read More
The Climatic History of the European North Atlantic Seaboard (19 Apr 2011)
"Since tree-limits in Scandinavia or elsewhere in the world have not reestablished at their Medieval levels, it is still possible that today's climate, despite centennial net warming, is within its natural limits"... Read More
Central Pacific El Niño Events (19 Apr 2011)
The authors of this study conclude that "we cannot exclude the possibility that an increasing of occurrence frequency of CP El Niño during recent decades in the observation could be a part of natural variability in the tropical climate system"... Read More
A New-and-Improved 457-Year History of ENSO Variability (19 Apr 2011)
Contrary to the projections of many climate models that have been made over a period of many years, Braganza et al. were unable to discern any unusual behavior in ENSO activity during the transition from what was the coldest period of the current interglacial to just before what the world's climate alarmists claim was the warmest period of the past two millennia, which finding raises further questions about the validity of the model projections... Read More
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Fluxes from Temperate Grasslands in a Warmer, Wetter and CO2-Enriched World (19 Apr 2011)
How do the three oft-predicted environmental changes impact natural emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas?.... Read More
Regional Climate Change: How Well Do the IPCC Models Really Perform? (20 Apr 2011)
It is well known that climate models have difficulty in not only projecting future climate, but in replicating the past climate. In addition to inadequate model physics or a lack of data, there is a naturally inherent uncertainty in models that fluid dynamicists generically call chaos. One way to overcome these problems is to run the models many times and generate a range of possibilities called scenarios. Such a strategy would be useful if models could replicate climate adequately. Anagnostopoulos et al. (2010) demonstrate using a statistical approach that dynamic modeling alone should not be used to project future climate... Read More
Catastrophic Superstorms of the French Mediterranean Coast (20 Apr 2011)
The two periods of most frequent superstorm strikes in the Aigues-Mortes Gulf coincide with two of the coldest periods in Europe during the late Holocene... Read More
Aquatic Herbivores in a CO2-Enriched World of the Future (20 Apr 2011)
Will they fare as well as they do today?... Read More
The Impact of Warming on Fungal Epidemics in Lakes (20 Apr 2011)
The authors' findings present "a scenario that runs counter to the general expectation of a 'warmer hence sicker world'"... Read More
A Twentieth-Century Rainfall History of India (20 Apr 2011)
Contrary to the implications of global climate models employed by the IPCC, the global warming of the past century has not led to any significant concomitant change in the mean annual rainfall of all of India or that of any of its four sub-regions... Read More
How a Long-Term CO2-Induced Increase in Forest Productivity is Maintained on a Nitrogen-Impoverished Soil (20 Apr 2011)
The key to the phenomenon may reside in the type of fungi colonizing the trees' roots... Read More
Extreme Precipitation Events in China's Zhujiang River Basin (26 Apr 2011)
Over the period 1961-2007, when climate alarmists claim the earth warmed at a rate and to a level that was unprecedented over the past millennium or more, the precipitation projections of the IPCC for this part of the world within the context of unprecedented global warming have still not come to pass... Read More
Improving the Quantification of Oceanic DMS and DMSP (26 Apr 2011)
Obtaining accurate budget measurements "is the first step toward gaining a better understanding of key issues related to the DMS ocean-air interaction and the effect of phytoplankton DMS production on climate change"... Read More
Rapid Adaptation to Potential Effects of Climatic Change Via Natural Selection (26 Apr 2011)
One can learn a lot from a mosquito fish... Read More
B. nana Plants in the Arctic Tundra (26 Apr 2011)
Results of a new study indicate that "warming profoundly alters nutrient cycling in tundra, and may facilitate the expansion of B. nana through the formation of mycorrhizal networks of larger size."... Read More
A 265-Year Reconstruction of Lake Erie Water Level (26 Apr 2011)
The highest lake levels in the reconstruction are found over the past few decades... Read More
Using Statistical Models to Understand Earth's Climate: The Intertropical Convergence Zone (26 Apr 2011)
When computer models are mentioned in the context of studying weather and climate, most people think of General Circulation Models being used to predict weather or project climate into the future. Modeling can also be used to examine the lifecycle of various phenomena in our present climate. In the study of Bain et al. (2011), a statistical model is used in order to identify an important feature in the Earth's atmosphere, a phenomenon that is thought to be relatively well-known... Read More
The Climatic Impacts of Precipitating Ice and Snow (27 Apr 2011)
Exclusion of precipitating ice from climate models used in AR4 "can result in underestimates of the reflective shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and overestimates of the down-welling surface shortwave and emitted TOA longwave flux," which magnitude of these potential errors "is on the order of the radiative heating changes associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide"... Read More
Elevated CO2 Mitigates Negative Drought Effects on Barley Plants (27 Apr 2011)
Leaf water potential in plants subjected to drought, but grown at elevated CO2, was less negative than in their ambient CO2 grown counterparts... Read More
Greenhouse Production of Cucumbers (27 Apr 2011)
Total season-long yield of a cucumber crop was increased by 19% by an extra 100 ppm of CO2 supplied to it during daylight hours, while overall water use efficiency of the CO2-enriched plants based on the amount of water supplied to them was about 40% higher... Read More
Two-and-a-Half Millennia of European Climate Variability and Societal Responses (27 Apr 2011)
A new analysis of the subject yields some interesting observations; but how these observations are interpreted is the most crucial thing of all... Read More
Effects of Elevated CO2 on Crop Water Relations (27 Apr 2011)
Real-world crops in Europe have been shown to use water more efficiently in high-CO2 air, thus making the liquid treasure last longer and possibly countermanding the current need to irrigate in many areas... Read More
Changes in Hot Days and Heat Waves in China: 1961-2007 (27 Apr 2011)
The frequency of HDs and HWs in China has large spatial as well as temporal variability, due possibly to changes in regional atmospheric flow patterns and also changes in local weather pattern like cloud cover, rain etc. Future changes in HD and HW in China and also elsewhere will most certainly depend upon many local and regional features (cloud cover, rain/no rain) and atmospheric flow patterns and NOT on 'human-activity induced' warming alone... Read More