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May 2011 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

The Ability of Coral Reefs to Regenerate after Catastrophic Events (3 May 2011)
The resilience of planulae to predicted climatic conditions "suggests that healthy coral reefs should be able to regenerate naturally after catastrophic events (such as ENSO-induced coral bleaching), if source populations can provide planulae in sufficient quantity and local stressors such as over-fishing, pollution and habitat destruction are controlled"... Read More
Elevated CO2 and Early Life Stages of Mediterranean Sea Urchins (3 May 2011)
Paracentrotus lividus "appears to be extremely resistant to low pH, with no effect on fertilization success or larval survival"... Read More
Coral Disease-Induced Growth Anomalies: What Causes Them? (3 May 2011)
An analysis of over 900 surveys conducted across the Indo-Pacific region provides the answer... Read More
The Amazing Amazon Rainforest (3 May 2011)
Not even a once-in-a-century drought could long curtail its inexorable positive growth response to the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content... Read More
Will Ocean Acidification -- If It Occurs -- Affect Marine Microbes? (3 May 2011)
Probably not, as they appear to be well adapted to natural fluctuations in pH... Read More
Fire as a Negative Climate Feedback? (3 May 2011)
How does it work?... Read More
Twentieth-Century Growth Rates of Florida (USA) Corals (4 May 2011)
Corals have "historically been able to maintain rates of extension and calcification over the 60-year period from 1937 to 1996 under the combination of local environmental and climatic changes"... Read More
Ocean Acidification and the Velvet Swimming Crab (4 May 2011)
The authors of this paper conclude their report by saying their results "confirm that most physiological functions in N. puber are resistant to low pH/hypercapnia over a longer period than previously investigated," and, we would add, over a far greater range of pH reduction than what could ever be produced, even by the burning of all fossil fuels in the crust of the earth... Read More
Helping Halophytes Combat Soil Salinization (4 May 2011)
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment enables salt-tolerant plants to more effectively reverse soil salinization and reclaim seriously degraded land, while simultaneously boosting their value as significant cash crops... Read More
Calcifying Marine Invertebrates "Living in the Future" (4 May 2011)
Real-world observations show that "communities dominated by calcifying invertebrates can thrive in CO2-enriched coastal areas"... Read More
River Discharge, Rainfall and Flood Data Challenge Model Based Projections of Increased Flood Risk (4 May 2011)
Analysis of trends and of aggregated time series on climatic (30-year) scale does not indicate consistent trends worldwide. Despite common perception, in general, the detected trends are more negative (less intense floods in most recent years) than positive. This challenged findings in recent Nature paper that used models to conclude that global greenhouse warming increased the risk of the floods that occurred in the UK in 2000... Read More
Ecological Plasticity in Seals May be Key to Climate Change Survival (4 May 2011)
Ecological plasticity-the ability of animals to exist in different forms depending on the habitat-is a well-known survival strategy for dealing with unstable environments and it has now been documented in two marine mammals: Arctic ringed seals and northern fur seals of the North Pacific... Read More
Hurricane Activity Over the North Atlantic Ocean (10 May 2011)
Atlantic basin hurricane activity is significantly reduced in warmer El Niño years compared with colder La Niña years... Read More
Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and Therapeutic Compounds of Ginger Root (10 May 2011)
Increasing the CO2 content of the atmosphere "can enhance the antioxidant activity of ginger extract, especially in its rhizomes," which can be of great value in that it thereby "increases the concentrations of several therapeutic compounds"... Read More
Evolutionary Response to Heat Shock (10 May 2011)
Observations imply that "evolution can occur so rapidly that it cannot be ignored, even in the short term"... Read More
Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Caribbean Sea (10 May 2011)
A new study leaves little room for any significant impact of CO2-induced global warming, in and of itself, on the frequency or intensity of Caribbean hurricanes... Read More
Heat Waves in the United States (10 May 2011)
Has the frequency and intensity of summer heat waves and records increased in the United States during what has been called the warmest decade in the historical record?... Read More
China-Influencing Typhoons (10 May 2011)
As the earth has warmed over the past half-century or so, China-influencing typhoons have become less frequent, especially in the case of the most intense super-typhoons... Read More
Sydney Rock Oysters Facing Ocean Acidification (11 May 2011)
Selective breeding may be a solution to 'climate-proof' important aquaculture industries from the impacts of ocean acidification... Read More
CO2-Enriched Trees Extracting Needed Nitrogen from Nitrogen-Poor Soil (11 May 2011)
Results of a new study demonstrate that "the enhanced carbon flux from roots to soil in low fertility forests exposed to elevated CO2 creates hotspots for microbial activity that are associated with faster rates of soil organic matter turnover and N cycling," which phenomenon provides the trees the extra nitrogen they need to take full advantage of the enhanced potential for growth that is provided by atmospheric CO2 enrichment, thereby overcoming the incorrect implications of the progressive nitrogen limitation hypothesis... Read More
Cleansing the Atmosphere Spurs Global Warming (11 May 2011)
How can it be so?... Read More
Grapevine Yields in the Port Wine Region of Portugal (11 May 2011)
Yields are expected to increase "about 800 kg/ha until the end of the twenty-first century," which compared to the long-term mean of 3,104 kg/ha represents an increase of nearly 26%... Read More
The MWP, LIA and CWP on the North Icelandic Shelf (11 May 2011)
Once again we have a situation where the warmth of the more distant past clearly exceeded that of the recent past, with the peak temperature of the MWP exceeding that of the Current Warm Period by about 0.6°C... Read More
Heat Tolerance in Antarctic Fish (17 May 2011)
What was long believe to be true, now turns out to be not so true, as the fish under study showed "a surprising level of thermal plasticity at low temperatures"... Read More
Black Carbon and the Melting of Himalayan Glaciers (17 May 2011)
The radiative forcing due to the direct effect of BC at five glacier sites has "a global annual mean of +0.32 W/m2, while "the local monthly mean radiative forcing due to changes in snow-albedo ranges from +3.78 to +15.6 W/m2"... Read More
Prospects for Sea Urchin Development in Warmed Waters Southeast of Australia (17 May 2011)
Higher thermotolerance of the species' northern embryos "provides the possibility that H. erythrogramma populations might keep up with a warming world through poleward migration of thermotolerant propagules"... Read More
Two Millennia of Temperature and Precipitation Changes in Arid Central Asia (17 May 2011)
Once again, we have a substantive body of evidence for the natural, non-CO2-induced, millennial cycling of climate that has alternately brought the world into -- and then out of -- the Roman Warm Period, the Dark Ages Cold Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, which gives us every reason to believe that its continued operation has likely brought the planet into the Current Warm Period, and that this natural phenomenon will likely bring the world out of its latest extended "heat wave," sometime in the future... Read More
Plant Stomatal Responses to Changes in the Air's CO2 Content (17 May 2011)
CThey can occur on three different time scales, driven by three different phenomena, as observed in five woody angiosperms, three conifers and one fern in a recent study... Read More
Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones (17 May 2011)
The long-term global warming experienced by the earth has been accompanied by a long-term decline in WNP TC frequency.... Read More
Modeling the Pattern of Tropical Ocean Warming (18 May 2011)
Even with "full atmosphere-ocean coupling, climate models with prescribed observed radiative forcing changes do not capture the pattern of the observed tropical oceanic warming suggests that either the radiatively forced component of this warming pattern was sufficiently small in recent decades to be dwarfed by natural tropical SST variability, or that the coupled models are misrepresenting some important tropical physics"... Read More
Extreme Precipitation in UK and Zhujiang River Basin, South China (18 May 2011)
The U.S. government-subsidized corn ethanol industry appears to be a bust in terms of both its intended goal and the price to be paid for it... Read More
The Corn Ethanol Con (18 May 2011)
The U.S. government-subsidized corn ethanol industry appears to be a bust in terms of both its intended goal and the price to be paid for it... Read More
Earth's Temperature: Deconstructing the Past to Predict the Future (18 May 2011)
To reconstruct the past thousand-year history of earth's global mean temperature it is sufficient to merely employ known oscillations in solar radiation variability. As for the future, the authors of this study predict that "global-mean temperature will decline to a renewed cooling period in the 2030s, and then rise to a new high-temperature period in the 2060s... Read More
The Disappearing Frogs of Southeastern Peru: What's the Cause? (18 May 2011)
Is it climate change? Or is it ... ???... Read More
Precipitation Trends in the USA (18 May 2011)
Issues with the Climate Division data compiled from COOP stations were addressed by the authors in their attempt to better assess long term precipitation across the United States. Though climate models suggest increasing drought across the southern states, the cleaned up data showed instead long term positive trends and the likelihood that the changes were due largely to natural variability... Read More
Active Tornado Seasons, Big Outbreaks and Stronger Tornadoes Have Been Shown to Be Associated With La Niñas and Natural Variability in the Pacific (24 May 2011)
Very active tornado months in May 2008 and April 2011 have been attributed by some to climate change. Numerous authors have instead found that stronger La Niñas, which are more frequent during cold Pacific (negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation) eras, are characterized by such outbreaks, active months, and strong tornadoes... Read More
Ocean pH Tolerance in Two Important Antarctic Invertebrates (24 May 2011)
New findings "do not support a view that polar species are more affected by lowered pH compared with temperate and tropical counterparts"... Read More
What Does the World Health Organization Study of Global Health Risks Imply about Global Warming's Health Risks? (24 May 2011)
It attributed 154,000-166,000 deaths worldwide and 5.5 million lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) in 2000 to global warming. The methodology, however, used to develop these estimates is suspect because... Read More
Pasture and Rangeland Responses to Rising CO2 Concentrations and Projected Changes in Climate (24 May 2011)
Overall, the response of pasture species to increasing CO2 is expected to be "consistent with the CO2 response of C3 and C4 crop species," both of which are positive... Read More
Chinese Locust Plagues of the Past Millennium (24 May 2011)
Results suggest that "global warming might not only imply reduced locust plague[s], but also reduced risk of droughts and floods for entire China"... Read More
The Greening of Earth's Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (24 May 2011)
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations initiate the process, while a host of other phenomena combine to enhance it... Read More
Climate Models Need to Render the Past Before Projecting the Future (25 May 2011)
One of the chief criticisms of model projections of future climate in the climate change debate is that the general circulation models (GCMs) are not fully able to replicate past climate reliably due to "well-known" deficiencies in the models. One way that modelers attempt to overcome these is through the use of ensemble techniques, or multiple runs of the model. This provides for a future scenario that can be expressed as a range. But, even these cannot overcome all the shortcomings found in the models... Read More
Plant Species' Range Shifts in Mountainous Areas (25 May 2011)
Although there is indeed a general tendency for plant species to move upward in elevation at their cold-limited range boundary in response to rising temperatures, some remain stationary and some even move in the opposite direction, while at their heat-limited range boundary, many do not move at all... Read More
Southern Scandinavian Storminess (25 May 2011)
Data reveal that "there is no significant overall long-term trend common to all indices in cyclone activity in the North Atlantic and European region since the Dalton minimum"... Read More
Fluctuations in Air Temperature and Certain Cloud Parameters (25 May 2011)
Apparently, some weather and climatic parameters have not become more variable or extreme with the passage of time, even over the last few decades, when climate alarmists claim the earth warmed at a rate and to a level not experienced over the past millennium or more... Read More
Climate-Driven Adaptations of Balsam Poplar Trees (25 May 2011)
How did the trees change as they expanded their ranges in response to the warming that followed the last glaciation?... Read More
Roots of CO2-Enriched Trees Seek Out Needed Nitrogen (25 May 2011)
As atmospheric CO2 enrichment provides an opportunity for trees to enhance their growth rates, it also seems to provide a way for them to find the extra nitrogen they need to do so... Read More
Climate-Change-Induced Disasters (31 May 2011)
Although "economic losses from various weather-related natural hazards, such as storms, tropical cyclones, floods, and small-scale weather events (e.g., wildfires and hailstorms), have increased around the globe," the 22 studies analyzed by the author "show no trends in losses, corrected for changes (increases) in population and capital at risk, that could be attributed to anthropogenic climate change"... Read More
Does the Inclusion of Realistic Vegetation Make for Healthier Climate Models? (31 May 2011)
Using two general circulation models (GCMs) coupled to a model that simulates realistic changes in vegetation cover on the land, a recent study demonstrates that the GCMs provide for a superior replication of climate variability than the same model using "fixed", or unchanging, vegetation. Climate variability is one of the most difficult stumbling blocks left for models to overcome. By including dynamic vegetation, models will be able to simulate better past climates... Read More
CO2-Enriched Seawater: A Menace to Marine Meiofauna? (31 May 2011)
The projected atmospheric CO2 concentration in the year 2300 "does not have acute effects on the meiofauna"... Read More
Up from the Depths: Regenerating Decimated Corals (31 May 2011)
When help is needed, corals from deeper water can help to repopulate shallower, bleached reefs... Read More
The Acidification of the Ocean (31 May 2011)
How has oceanic pH varied through time?... Read More
Juvenile Marine Fish Learning to Take the Heat (31 May 2011)
A new report suggests that "tropical marine fishes inhabiting fringing nursery environments may have the upper thermal tolerance necessary to endure substantial increases in sea temperatures... Read More
Changes in Frequency of Heavy Rain Events Over Hawaii (31 May 2011)
Regression analysis indicates that the PNA (Pacific North American) index and the SO (Southern Oscillation) index together can explain about 18-44% of the variability in the number of heavy rain events... Read More