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October 2011 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Getting Back to Basics: Atmospheric Blocking (4 October 2011)
In American Football, blocking and tackling are fundamental to the game. In climate modeling, it turns out blocking is also fundamental. Atmospheric blocking is a large-scale long-lived event in which models have chronically under represented the frequency, duration, and intensity, both in a climatological sense and for weather forecasting. Yet the occurrence of blocking can be critical to defining the character of an extreme season such as the summer of 2010 in Russia, or the winter of 2010 - 2011 in the USA. Then, blocking can be a test of how well a model performs and how reliable they are in producing future climate scenarios... Read More
One More Alarmist Claim Not Supported by the Latest Science -- Fears of a Permanent El Niño (4 October 2011)
Data from the warm Eocene (~50 Mya), a period during which temperatures were ~ 10 °C higher than today, do not suggest El Niño was a permanent climatic feature... Read More
Why is Malaria Declining While Temperature (Might Be) Going Up in the East Africa Highlands? (4 October 2011)
It's a great question that the authors of this paper unfortunately fail to address... Read More
Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and the Weathering of Soil Minerals (4 October 2011)
Results suggest that "tropical forest soil systems may be able to compensate for a small part of the atmospheric CO2 increase through the accelerated processing of CO2 into biocarbonate-C during soil mineral weathering, which might be transported in part into ground water or oceans on geological timescales"... Read More
A Ray of Light Cutting Through the Dark Pall of Flood Damages (4 October 2011)
Twenty Taiwanese researchers see what few have seen before... Read More
Warming of the Tropical Upper Troposphere (5 October 2011)
In addition to greatly overestimating the tropical surface temperature trend, "it is evident that the AR4 GCMs exaggerate the increase in static stability between [the] tropical middle and upper troposphere during the last three decades," which findings do not bode well for the climate-modeling enterprise that is the foundational basis of the IPCC's unsupported claims of CO2-induced climate change... Read More
Global and Continental Drought in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century (5 October 2011)
Drought is one of the costliest of naturally occurring phenomena. The IPCC has claimed droughts are becoming more frequent, extensive and lengthy in duration as a result of CO2-induced global warming. The results of this 2009 study, however, don't support such claims... Read More
The Effects of Climate Change on Infectious Diseases (5 October 2011)
Commenting on their findings, the authors write that "although there should be genuine concern regarding future disease risk for humans and wildlife, we discourage alarmist claims and encourage rigor, open-mindedness and broad thinking regarding this crucial and interdisciplinary global issue"... Read More
Extreme Weather: Changes in Storm Surges in Southern Europe Under Climate Change Scenarios (5 October 2011)
Projections for the 21st century suggest a generalized decrease in the number of positive (storm surge) events under all three emission scenarios examined... Read More
Tibetan Plateau Vegetation: Past, Present and Future (5 October 2011)
What do we know about the region's past and present vegetation? ... and what does that knowledge suggest about the region's future vegetation?... Read More
Interannual Variability of 20th-Century Climate in CMIP3 Models (11 October 2011)
Aggregated over very large regions, the author finds that "hardly any robust relations exist between the models' ability to correctly represent Interannual Variability and the projected temperature change"... Read More
Seasonal Diurnal CO2 Cycles in the Salt Lake Valley of Utah (USA) (11 October 2011)
What are they? ... and what makes them what they are?... Read More
Global Droughts of the Last Half of the 20th Century (11 October 2011)
If anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the global warming they are supposed to produce are responsible for catastrophic droughts, as climate alarmists declare them to be, it seems strange indeed that the global drought activity of the last half of the 20th century was greatest at the start of that period, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations and mean global temperatures were far less than they were at its end... Read More
The Roman Warm Period at Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland (11 October 2011)
For this particular part of the planet, there is nothing unusual, unnatural or unprecedented about late-20th-century/early-21st-century warmth... Read More
Purple Phototrophic Bacteria Under Rice-Wheat Double-Cropping (11 October 2011)
How do they respond to atmospheric CO2 enrichment? ... and what is the significance of that response?... Read More
Tropical Cyclones and Global Climate Changes (12 October 2011)
An Australian researcher reports that recent analyses of corrected historical tropical cyclone (TC) records suggest that there "are no definitive trends towards an increase in the frequency of high-intensity TCs for the Atlantic Ocean region (Knutson et al., 2010), the northwest Pacific (Chan, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007) and the Australian region, South Pacific and south Indian oceans (Kuleshov et al., 2010)"... Read More
Carbon Dioxide Enrichment of Iron-Stressed Tomato Plants (12 October 2011)
Plant growth was increased by the elevated CO2 in both the Fe-sufficient and Fe-limited media, with shoot fresh weight increasing by 22% and 44%, respectively, and root fresh weight increasing by 43% and 97%, respectively... Read More
Droughts of Southwestern North America: Past and Present (12 October 2011)
Major 20th century droughts "pale in comparison to droughts documented in paleoclimatic records over the past two millennia"... Read More
Tropical Cyclones: The Models Project More of Them in Our Future, or is it Fewer (12 October 2011)
Tropical cyclones can cause a variety of problems even for relatively advanced societies when they come ashore. Those who believe Anthropogenic Global Warming is an immediate threat often cite studies that show tropical cyclones will be more numerous and more powerful in a warmer world. Some say that storms like Hurricane Katrina would become the new normal. Recently, however, some studies have shown that fewer tropical cyclones would occur in a warmer world. So, which result is more likely?... Read More
The Prospects for Biofuels in Tuscany, Italy (12 October 2011)
The cultivation of maize and sunflower for energy production "cannot be considered a sustainable choice in Tuscany"... Read More
Tropical Cyclones Making Land-Fall Over Eastern Australia (18 October 2011)
The authors' analysis of their lengthy and comprehensive new data base reveals results that appear to be totally at odds with the contentions of the IPCC, which are based more on the output of numerical models of the atmosphere than on real-world observations... Read More
Forty Thousand Years of Coccolithophore Responses to Ocean Acidification (18 October 2011)
The data would seem to suggest that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations will very likely not bring a halt, or even a significant reduction, to coccolithophere calcification in either the decades or centuries to come... Read More
Global Temperatures: Driven by ENSO? (18 October 2011)
According to the authors, "natural climate forcing associated with ENSO is a major contributor to variability and perhaps recent trends in global temperature, a relationship that is not included in current global climate models"... Read More
The Impact of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on a Major Oceanic N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium (18 October 2011)
It's a big deal; and it has beneficial consequences for earth's biology and climate... Read More
The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age on Southampton Island, Nunavut, Canada (18 October 2011)
Once again we have another example of the reality of the Medieval Warm Period and its thermal superiority (greater warmth) compared to that of the Current Warm Period, which even at its 1980 peak was still about 0.2°C cooler than the Medieval Warm Period was during its peak warmth, when the air's CO2 concentration was more than a hundred parts per million less than it is currently... Read More
Human Pathogens: Their Presence and Prevalence (19 October 2011)
How are they impacted by climate change?... Read More
Cosmic Rays, Clouds and Climate (19 October 2011)
Results from this paper tend to support Svensmark's theory that solar-activity-induced decreases in galactic cosmic ray bombardment of the earth lead to decreases in low (<3.2 km) clouds as a result of reduced atmospheric ionization and, therefore, less fine aerosol particles that under normal circumstances could have evolved into cloud condensation nuclei that could have resulted in more low-level clouds that could have cooled the planet (but, obviously, were not there to do so under conditions of decreased GCR bombardment)... Read More
Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Sea Urchins (19 October 2011)
According to the authors, "sea urchins inhabiting stressful intertidal environments produce offspring that may better resist future ocean acidification."... Read More
Heat Related Mortality in the Metropolitan United States (19 October 2011)
In spite of the fact that there has been a significant increase in the number of metropolitan stations experiencing 1-day extreme maximum apparent temperautres over the period 1949-2010, and in spite of the fact that that trend had accelerated over the period 1995-2010, Grundstein and Dowd report that Davis et al. (2003) had found that heat-related mortality in major metropolitan areas had actually declined over the 1961-1998 period... Read More
To What Do We Owe the Origin of Agriculture? (19 October 2011)
If you're guessing CO2, read on and decide for yourself... Read More
Predicting the Course of Climate Change Over the Next Decade (25 October 2011)
The two researchers of this paper list numerous problems that hamper decadal climate predictability, among which is the fact that "the models suffer from large biases"... Read More
Primary Production in the Bering Sea (25 October 2011)
"Rather than declining," as the three U.S. (Stanford University) researchers of this study report, they found that mean annual sea ice extent in the Bering Sea "has exhibited no significant change over the satellite sea ice record (1979-2009)," because, as they discovered, significant warming during the satellite sea surface temperature record (1982-2009) "is mainly limited to the summer months"... Read More
Global Warming and Late Spring Frosts: Bad for Apples? (25 October 2011)
Will the looming "climate crisis" soon spell The End for fruit growers around the world?... Read More
Tropical Climate Variability (25 October 2011)
Does it behave in the way climate alarmists claim it does?... Read More
Semi-Arid Grasslands in a CO2-Enriched and Warmer World (25 October 2011)
Results "indicate that in a warmer, CO2-enriched world, both soil water content and productivity in semi-arid grasslands may be higher than previously expected"... Read More
Weaknesses in Our Knowledge of Land-Ice/Sea-Level Interactions (26 October 2011)
A recent review of the subject reveals a number of inadequacies that greatly limit our ability to accurately forecast future changes in sea level... Read More
Evolutionary Responses of Long-Lived Terrestrial Plants to Rising Atmospheric CO2 Concentration (26 October 2011)
Studies of plants living for many generations in the vicinity of natural CO2 springs lead to some encouraging conclusions... Read More
Abrupt Climate Change Simulations (26 October 2011)
The ultimate implication of Wan et al.'s findings is, in their words, that "in order to accurately simulate past abrupt climate changes and project future changes, the bias in climate models must be reduced." But if "little or no progress" on this problem has been made in the tropical Atlantic "over the past decades," as noted by the four of them, the outlook is not very promising for such a positive development any time soon... Read More
Impacts of Tropical Cyclones on U.S. Forests (26 October 2011)
Contrary to climate-alarmist claims that storms such as tropical cyclones and hurricanes become stronger and occur more frequently in response to global warming, thereby also creating more damage and destruction, the six U.S. scientists in this study found that just the opposite has occurred over the course of the Industrial Revolution in the United States with respect to a major component of the natural environment (i.e., trees), as opposed to the "built" environment of American society... Read More
The Seven Deadly "Sins of Omission" that Plague Projections of Future Spatial Distributions of Marine Life (26 October 2011)
With respect to projections of future ranges of marine plant and animal populations, the authors conclude that "most current projections are expected to be far less reliable than usually assumed." In fact, they note that these assessments are so tenuous that "unless uncertainty can be better accounted for, such projections may be of limited use, or even risky to use for management purposes"... Read More