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January 2012 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Comparing Earth's Sea-Level and Energy Budgets (3 Jan 2012)
In spite of all one hears, sees and reads in the popular press about unprecedented global warming and recent accelerated melting of glaciers and ice sheets, as well as short-term accelerations in sea level rise detected by means of satellite technology, the mean rate-of-rise of Earth's global ocean appears to have remained remarkably constant ever since 1972... Read More
Empirical Harmonic Models Project "Sunnier" Climate Scenarios Ahead (3 Jan 2012)
Recent work by Scafetta (2011) demonstrates that using an empirical harmonic climate model can reproduce the global climate record of the last 150 years more faithfully than general circulation models (GCMs). The GCMs were those employed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The author also shows that because these GCMs cannot reproduce decadal and interdecadal climate variability, the models likely over-project the magnitude of the warming that may occur over the next century. Lastly, this work provides strong evidence that natural variability is at least partly due to external forcing that derives from the relationship between the sun and its larger planets as well as the Earth's moon... Read More
Feeding the World Four Decades from Now (3 Jan 2012)
New research suggests how the seemingly impossible task might possibly be accomplished... Read More
ENSO Variability Over the Past Millennium (3 Jan 2012)
What does it imply about the likely relative strength/frequency of El Niño and La Niña events in a future warmer world? And what does that imply about the reliability of today's climate models?... Read More
Primary Production in Future CO2-Enriched Ocean Water (3 Jan 2012)
Observations once again suggest that the planet's rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may well stimulate oceanic primary production and thereby enable the sustaining of a greater population of higher-trophic-level marine organisms... Read More
Tropical Damselfish Successfully Adapt to Higher Temperatures (4 Jan 2012)
Experimental evidence shows tropical fish can adapt to rising water temperatures much faster than previously thought... Read More
The Future of the Brazilian Amazon (4 Jan 2012)
One environmental impact that has raised serious concerns is the loss of Amazonian forest through indirect land use change (ILUC), whereby "agricultural activities displaced from one region are reconstituted in another one"... Read More
Nearly Half a Millennium of Antarctic Temperatures (4 Jan 2012)
Climate alarmists have long predicted that CO2-induced global warming -- which they claim has (1) accelerated significantly over the course of the 20th century and is (2) unprecedented with respect to the past millennium or more -- should be (3) greatly amplified in Earth's polar regions. However, results of a recent paper clearly indicate that all three of these climate-alarmist claims are false in regard to this portion of the planet's southern polar region... Read More
Exciting El Niño News: More Evidence of a Solar Trigger (4 Jan 2012)
Within the literature, there is disagreement about what triggers El Niño. Some believe that El Niño is the result of internal variability, while others have shown a solar link. A paper by White and Liu (2008) demonstrated that the El Niño may result from the phasing of two sub-harmonics in the 11-year solar cycle. They also show that general circulation models which include the 11-year solar cycle can replicate the behavior of El Niño quite well. This bodes well for long-range forecasting on the time scale of three to 10 years... Read More
Farm and Range Management to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change (4 Jan 2012)
Although based on the claim that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are a threat to both nature and humanity, the policy prescriptions of a recent editorial in the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation should resonate with climate alarmists and skeptics alike... Read More
Effects of Super-High CO2 Concentrations on a Deep-Sea Bivalve (10 Jan 2012)
Perhaps they are not all that bad as they are made out to be?... Read More
Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Trends Flat to Down (10 Jan 2012)
A study of tropical cyclone activity in the Southern Hemisphere shows no increase in frequency since 1981... Read More
Rising Temperatures and Corn Production in Northeast China (10 Jan 2012)
In order to "fully exploit the positive effects of global warming on corn production," in the words of Chen et al., "new varieties should be adapted to the longer growing season," which adjustment could be described as a good example of man and nature working together to insure maximum food security for a large portion of mankind... Read More
Environmental Stresses and Plant Methane Emissions (10 Jan 2012)
A study suggests that the former leads to the latter, and that various global change processes could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, stimulating undesirable CH4 emissions... Read More
Aboveground Biomass Response of a Fast-Growing C3 Plant to Super-Elevated CO2 Concentrations (10 Jan 2012)
How high can the air's CO2 content go and C3 plants still be stimulated?... Read More
The Flade Isblink Ice Cap of Northern Greenland (11 Jan 2012)
Not all of Greenland is experiencing ice loss. In portions of some regions, ice is accreting in sufficient amounts to cancel out huge amounts of ice loss in other of its parts; and Greenland's Flade Isblink Ice Cap would appear to be one of those regions... Read More
Fine-Root Survivorship of Ponderosa Pine Trees: CO2 vs. O3 (11 Jan 2012)
Elevated O3 "did not result in significant negative impacts on ponderosa pine seedling fine-root survival ... or in countering the increased survivorship caused by elevated CO2," as the good gas won and the bad gas lost, in a proxy representation of the much greater biospheric battle that will be played out in the years and decades to come, as the concentrations of the two trace gases of the atmosphere continue rising in tandem... Read More
The MWP and LIA in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (11 Jan 2012)
A new proxy for Arctic sea ice provides evidence for the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age high above the Arctic Circle... Read More
Temperature Effects on Hospital Admissions in Shanghai, China (11 Jan 2012)
The number of excess (above normal) hospital admissions during an eight-day heat wave was 352, while during a ten-day cold spell there were 3725 excess admissions... Read More
Recent Mass Balance Estimates of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (11 Jan 2012)
Is the ice sheet shrinking or growing? ... and is it doing one or the other of these alternatives either faster or slower than was previously thought to be the case?... Read More
Modeling Changes in Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Characteristics (17 Jan 2012)
In his more recent analysis of the subject, based on the multi-model data set of Meehl et al. (2007), Kwok (2011) compares CMIP3 model simulations "with observations of sea ice motion, export, extent, and thickness and analyzes fields of sea level pressure and geostrophic wind of the Arctic Ocean," finding several discrepancies... Read More
Coral Response to Thermal Stress: Symbiont Shuffling Plus (17 Jan 2012)
Symbiont shuffling has a partner that helps corals survive bleaching episodes; and that partner is the coral host itself... Read More
The Impact of Elevated CO2 on Salinity Stress in Barley (17 Jan 2012)
According to the five researchers who conducted this study, "elevated CO2 will mitigate the negative impact of salinity on barley growth and will enable plants to remain turgid and functional for a longer period and for a higher salt concentration," adding that "these facts open the possibility of a future successful development of this species in saline areas in which nowadays growth is not possible"... Read More
Extremes of Hot and Cold Weather in India (17 Jan 2012)
How have they changed over the past few decades?... Read More
Effects of pH on Early Embryonic Development in Pacific Oysters (17 Jan 2012)
The effects of ocean acidification on larvae of Crassostrea gigas during the first three days of development are not significant as long as CO32- concentrations remain above aragonite saturated conditions... Read More
The Future of Earth's Coral Reefs Debated in Science (18 Jan 2012)
In a previous review, we discussed the paper of Pandolfi et al. (2011a) that was published in Science on 22 July 2011, wherein we briefly reported the many ways in which they suggested Earth's coral reefs might successfully respond to the dual challenge of projected rapid increases in temperature and ocean acidification. As might have been expected, however, their optimistic analysis was not well received by the world's climate alarmists, who in the 16 December 2011 issue of Science - via the persons of Hoegh-Guldberg et al. (2011) - cast many aspersions on it. However, Pandolfi et al. (2011b) were given the opportunity of responding to them and deflated their arguments... Read More
Disaster and Recovery of the Fringing Reefs of North Jamaica (18 Jan 2012)
In light of the many detrimental assaults on the growth and development of corals here, it's amazing they have been able to bounce back at all!... Read More
Soil Organic Carbon Response to Late 20th-Century Warming in the United Kingdom (18 Jan 2012)
One of the postulated consequences of global warming is a loss of soil organic carbon (SOC), yet a team of researchers found that "there has been no consistent decrease in SOC stocks in surface soils under old, permanent grassland in England in recent decades, even though meteorological records for both sites indicate significant warming of the soil and air between 1980 and 2000"... Read More
A Summary of Climate Change over the Past Millennium in China (18 Jan 2012)
The two most notable findings according to the author are (1) "temperatures in the Medieval Warm Period are comparable to those in the current warm period over China" and (2) "the effect of solar activity on climate cannot be neglected in any period of the millennium"... Read More
Responses of Northeast Atlantic Fish to Rapid Regional Warming (18 Jan 2012)
How do they compare with responses predicted by the "climate envelope" technique that is typically used by climate alarmists?... Read More
Species Assigned to Climate Envelopes in a Warming World (24 Jan 2012)
The approach is much too simplistic to use as a guide to how real-life plants and animals react to climate change... Read More
Reality Check: Global Malaria Trends, 2000-2010 (24 Jan 2012)
One of the concerns related to global warming is that it may increase the prevalence of malaria. Much of this is based on models and model results. Accordingly, it is useful to check in with the real world to verify whether death and disease from malaria is expanding... Read More
Crop Growth Response to Elevated CO2 in a Closed Ecological System (24 Jan 2012)
The four researchers presented data indicating that relative to net photosynthesis at a CO2 concentration of 385 ppm, rates measured at 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm and 2800 ppm were 150%, 275% and 355% greater... Read More
Snowfall Regimes within the Italian Alps (24 Jan 2012)
How well are they represented by general circulation models of the atmosphere? Authors Soncini and Bocchiola find that "the investigated GCMs provide poor depiction of the snowfall timing and amount upon the Italian Alps," noting, in fact, that the HadCM3 model actually "displays considerable snowfall during summer," which they indicate "is clearly not supported by ground data"... Read More
Sea Stars - with Missing Arms! - Experiencing Ocean Acidification (24 Jan 2012)
The four U.S. researchers who authored this study report that adult sea start "exposed to end-of-century conditions of ocean acidification (pH 7.8) are relatively unimpaired in their regenerative capacity," which "encompasses not only their ability to re-grow their arms, but their ability to allocate materials and energy to regenerated somatic body components"... Read More
The Future of Brazilian Biofuel Production (25 Jan 2012)
The determined researcher, a quantitative economic geographer, who authored this study says his projections indicate that "more Amazonian land will be demanded [in the production of biofuel crops] than has been made available by Brazilian environmental policy"... Read More
Earth's Ocean Heat Content (25 Jan 2012)
Is it going up, down or holding relatively steady? ... and what is the significance of the result?... Read More
Biological Soil Crusts, Seed Germination and CO2 (25 Jan 2012)
How are the three related?... Read More
A High-Intensity Hurricane Record Preserved in a Florida Sinkhole (25 Jan 2012)
Over the past century and a half of ever-increasing fossil fuel utilization and atmospheric CO2 buildup, the frequency of the most intense category of hurricanes in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico has been lower than it was over the prior five millennia, which speaks volumes about the climate-alarmist claim that continued anthropogenic CO2 emissions will lead to more frequent super cyclones and hurricanes... Read More
Cadmium Stress in Perennial Ryegrass (25 Jan 2012)
Under elevated CO2, L. perenne "may be better protected against Cd stress with higher biomass, lower Cd concentration and better detoxification by phytochelatins." In addition, "lower Cd concentration in plants under elevated CO2 may relieve the Cd toxicity to plants and reduce the risk of Cd transport in the food chain"... Read More
Algal Symbionts Appear to Determine Responses of Calcifying Organisms to Ocean Acidification (31 Jan 2012)
The well-known phenomenon of symbiont shuffling may enable many calcifying organisms, which currently are negatively influenced by ocean acidification, to ultimately move into the positively-influenced category... Read More
Genetic Adaptation to Extreme Environmental Change (31 Jan 2012)
Earth's flora and fauna are genetically capable of meeting the challenge of coping with the type of rapid CO2-induced global warming that climate alarmists contend will drive innumerable plant and animal species to extinction... Read More
Genetic Adaptation to Warming Revealed in Study of Water Fleas (31 Jan 2012)
The evidence continues to mount that species are capable of rapid and adaptive micro-evolutionary responses to increases in temperature... Read More
A 2000-Year Temperature History of the Mountainous West Eifel Volcanic Field of Germany (31 Jan 2012)
In terms of Moschen et al.'s stated purpose of hoping to illustrate "to what extent human activities contribute to the recent warming trend observable at a regional and global scale," based on the natural climate changes that occurred here over the past two millennia, it would have to be concluded that human activities have contributed absolutely nothing in the way of warming, as it was much warmer at Durres Maar, Germany, back in the "good old (High Medieval) days," when there was far less CO2 in the air than there is today... Read More
Warming and Cooling in the Bay of Biscay (31 Jan 2012)
The multi-decadal sea surface temperature cycling of the past century and a half reveals "the North Atlantic remains within the envelope of previous recorded conditions"... Read More