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July 2012 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Fine- vs. Coarse-Scale (Envelope) Models of Climate-Induced Vegetation Change (3 July 2012)
The findings of Feurdean et al. add to those of the growing number of studies that demonstrate the shortcomings of climate-alarmist-approved "climate envelope" models of both vegetation and animal responses to rising temperatures, which models are used by climate alarmists to predict massive species extinctions as a result of the "unprecedented" CO2-induced global warming predicted by equally deficient climate models... Read More
Climate Change and Armed Civil Conflict (3 July 2012)
Does the former typically lead to the latter, as so many climate alarmists contend? According to the researchers who conducted this analysis, "storms and floods adversely affect people and production inputs such as land, infrastructure, and factories, which in turn have a negative impact on the aggregate economy," but they determined that, "interestingly, these negative income shocks do not increase the risk of armed civil conflict as predicted by prominent studies in the field"... Read More
Will There Be Enough Nitrogen? (3 July 2012)
Is there enough readily-available nitrogen in Earth's soils to sustain the aerial fertilization effect of the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content? And if not, is it possible to somehow supply that important nutrient to all of the planet's terrestrial vegetation?... Read More
Effects of Ocean Acidification on Motility and Swimming Speed of Sea Urchin Sperm (3 July 2012)
Do higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations pushing seawater pH downwards enhance or harm these two important attributes of sea urchin sperm?... Read More
Effects of Elevated CO2 on the Growth of Marine Algae (4 July 2012)
Even the worst nightmare of the world's climate alarmists will not be a great impediment to the continued wellbeing of the two green marine algae examined in this study... Read More
Climate Variability and Civil Strife (4 July 2012)
Are the two phenomena related? Not according to the results of this study, which suggest that claims by "high-ranking policymakers" that "climate change breeds violent conflict" have yet to be conclusively demonstrated... Read More
Warming-Induced Range Shifts of Birds on Tropical Mountains (4 July 2012)
What do they imply about the abilities of the birds to tolerate significant changes in temperature?.... Read More
Lake Victoria Basin Rainfall Over the 20th Century (4 July 2012)
How has it changed? Based on the authors' analysis, there was an increase of 2-4 mm per year, which "translates to a rainfall increase of about 24% over the twentieth century"... Read More
The "Dark Side" of Sugar-Cane Ethanol Production (10 July 2012)
A recent study suggests that the air of countries going green may not be so clean ... or healthy!... Read More
Impacts of Recurrent Estuarine Acidification on Wild Invertebrates (10 July 2012)
How debilitating are they? The results of this study suggest that "at the population level, calcifying organisms display a certain degree of natural resistance" to ocean acidification brought about by either natural behavior, long-term physiological acclimation, and/or genetic selection... Read More
Global Warming Fosters High-Latitude Cooling? (10 July 2012)
Whereas CO2-induced global warming has for decades been predicted to be amplified in Earth's high latitudes, it is now being suggested (by some) that it cools those regions... Read More
The King Penguin Population on Macquarie Island (10 July 2012)
Populations of king penguins on Macquarie Island have not only rebounded but a recent study has revealed that genetic diversity is now as great as it was before 19th century overhunting... Read More
Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment: Working Wonders in the Plant Root Zone (11 July 2012)
At the end of a 12-day experiment, it was determined that the length of fungal extraradical mycelium had been significantly increased by some 90% by an approximate doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration... Read More
The Ability of Marine Turtles to Adapt to Warmer Environments (11 July 2012)
Offspring of female turtles nesting on a naturally hot (black sand) beach "survived better and grew larger at hot incubation temperatures" compared with the offspring of females nesting on a cooler (pale sand) beach, which findings "suggest that the increased heat-tolerance of [black sand beach] turtles has a genetic basis"... Read More
Global Warming: Does It Promote or Hinder Peace? (11 July 2012)
"Analysis at the system level suggests that global warming is associated with a reduction in interstate conflict," and that "incorporating measures of development, democracy, cross-border trade, and international institutions reveals that systemic trends toward peace are actually best accounted for by the increase in average international income"... Read More
Soluble Exudates Produced by Ectomycorrhizal Roots of Scots Pine Trees (11 July 2012)
Johansson et al. report they observed "a clear impact of elevated CO2 on exudation of soluble low molecular weight organic compounds," and that these exudates "increased by 120-270%" due to "the increased carbon availability to the plant-fungus system," which was driven by the increased atmospheric CO2 concentration employed in their study, and which led to a mean increase of 27% in the growth (i.e., total biomass production) of the seedlings infected with the eight different species of ECM fungi, but which led to only a 14% increase in the biomass of the non-infected seedlings... Read More
Climate-Related Disasters and Social Unrest (17 July 2012)
How often do the former phenomena lead to the latter unfortunate situation? According to the author of this paper, "to the extent that climate-related natural disasters affect the risk of conflict, they contribute to reducing it." And he finds that this result holds "for a measure of climate-related natural disasters in general, as well as drought in particular"... Read More
Tropical Fish May be Well Prepared to Cope with Global Warming (17 July 2012)
And they appear to be prepared to do it rapidly, as the authors of this report discoverd that offspring phenotypes fully adapted to the increase in temperature within a mere two generations, which finding, in the words of the authors, "could indicate that some tropical marine species are more capable of coping with global warming than has been suggested and illustrates a potential limitation of short-term experiments in predicting the long-term impacts of climate change"... Read More
CO2 vs. Ozone: Their Effects on Chinese Pine Trees (17 July 2012)
New findings suggest a huge win for CO2 in its battle with O3 to impact the growth and development of Chinese pine trees... Read More
Acclimatization of Corals to Thermal Stress (17 July 2012)
A new addition to their "bag of tricks" is revealed, further suggesting that Earth's corals may be much better adapted to dealing with global warming than has long been believed... Read More
A Data-Rich 1200-Year Temperature History of the Northern Hemisphere (18 July 2012)
The most data-inclusive study of the subject yet to be conducted yields the most reliable results yet to be derived. As seen in numerous other paleo-temperature reconstructions stretching back over a millennium or more, there is nothing unusual, unnatural or unprecedented about Earth's current level of warmth when compared to that of the Medieval Warm Period, when there was way less CO2 in the air than there is currently (~280 ppm then vs. ~395 ppm now)... Read More
Effects of Rising Temperatures on the Progamic Phase of High-Mountain Plants (18 July 2012)
Are they such as will lead to the extirpation of high-mountain plants if the planet continues to warm?... Read More
The Potential for Adaptive Evolution to Enable the World's Most Important Calcifying Organism to Cope with Ocean Acidification (18 July 2012)
A major new study demonstrates that the keystone species is fully prepared to meet the challenge that climate alarmists are attributing to past, current and projected anthropogenic CO2 emissions... Read More
Woody Plants Invading Grasslands (18 July 2012)
From the results of this study, it can likely be concluded that as the air's CO2 content continues to rise, promoting the spread of woody plants into semi-arid grasslands around the globe, ever more carbon will likely be captured and stored, both above- and below-ground, which phenomenon tends to slow the rate-of-rise of the atmosphere's CO2 concentration and reduce the ultimate degree of warmth that might otherwise be attained by the planet... Read More
A Model Passes the Test for Tropical Cyclones (18 July 2012)
General Circulation Models are slowly improving as computer power increases, and more powerful computers allow for model horizontal resolutions that are currently the domain of weather forecast models. Resolution has traditionally been viewed as one of the biggest sources for model errors. Manganello et al. (2012) demonstrate that a high resolution GCM can adequately represent observed Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclone frequencies, and also their structure... Read More
Eight and a Half Centuries of Snowpack Variations in the Andes of Chile and Argentina (24 July 2012)
What do they reveal about the nature of snowpack conditions there over the past several decades of supposedly unprecedented global warming? Contrary to the worries of climate alarmists, it would appear that there is nothing unusual, unnatural or unprecedented about the highs and lows of the Andean snowpack... Read More
Biofuels: Forging Ahead Without a Full Understanding of the End Result (24 July 2012)
According to Ridley et al. (2012), "despite rapid growth in biofuel production worldwide, it is uncertain whether decision-makers possess sufficient information to fully evaluate the impacts of the industry and avoid unintended consequences," because, as they put it, "doing so requires rigorous peer-reviewed data and analyses across the entire range of direct and indirect effects." And the U.S. research team surmised that such an effort, or set of efforts, had not been made to this point in time... Read More
Ocean Acidification and the Marine Nitrogen Cycle (24 July 2012)
Will future real-world results be as bad as has been predicted by some? In a grand understatement, the authors of this study conclude by saying their findings indicate that "the current hypothesis of the negative impacts of ocean acidification on nitrification, at least for the coastal ocean, might need reevaluation"... Read More
Calculating the Effects of Climate Change and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on California (USA) Crop Production (24 July 2012)
Scientists reject experimental observations to go with theoretical model predictions. Very strange? ... or only to be expected?... Read More
Extreme Temperature Events Throughout South America (25 July 2012)
In general, over most of South America there has been a decrease in the extremeness of both daily maximum and minimum air temperatures, with the maximums declining and the minimums rising. This finding is very encouraging for that continent's inhabitants, for cold waves and frost are especially harmful to agriculture, which the author of this paper says is one of the main economic activities in South America. And cold waves and frost days have been on the decline nearly everywhere throughout the continent during the period of 20th-century global warming... Read More
Tropical and Subtropical Birds Expanding Northwards in Texas (25 July 2012)
Whereas climate alarmists see little of hope in warming-induced migrations of species, real-world studies paint a much different picture of the recent and ongoing reorganization of the planet's many and varied ecosystems... Read More
Historic U.S. Midwest Floods of 1993 & 2008 (25 July 2012)
We have much to learn and understand why such extreme events occur... Read More
Recurrent Bleaching and Storms Need Not Spell "the End" for Earth's Corals (25 July 2012)
Most models predict an increase in the frequency and severity of negative disturbances for coral reefs over the next few decades. It is possible, of course, that those predictions may never come to pass; nevertheless, it is important to consider the natural ability of Earth's corals to resist or recover from such challenges... Read More
Probing Ecosystem Resilience to Climate Change in Arctic-Alpine Plants (31 July 2012)
Despite climate alarmist concerns that many high latitude ecosystems will be threatened by global warming-induced extinctions before the end of this century, the authors of this study find that "moderate climate change with an average temperature increase of 1.8°C over the next hundred years and a moderate frequency of extreme climatic events will not lead to local extinctions of long-lived clonal plant populations [italics added]"... Read More
Snowfall and Snow Depth in Switzerland (31 July 2012)
IPCC-based predictions regarding a propensity for more extreme precipitation events to occur in a warming world has not been seen in Switzerland. In fact, just the opposite appears to be the case there over the past eight decades... Read More
Carbon and Nitrogen in the Soil of a Sweetgum Plantation after Eleven Years of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (31 July 2012)
How were their concentrations impacted? According to the authors of this study, "soil C and N contents were greater throughout the soil profile under elevated CO2 at the conclusion of the experiment"... Read More
CO2 Effects on Plant Nutrient Concentrations (31 July 2012)
What are the findings of the largest meta-analysis of the subject ever to be conducted? Duval et al. conclude that their findings "challenge the assumption that plant nutrient concentrations are generally lowered by elevated CO2 strictly on the basis of carbohydrate dilution," thereby largely contradicting the "hidden hunger hypothesis" put forward a decade earlier by Loladze (2002)... Read More