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October 2012 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

The Mass Balance of the Karakoram Glaciers (2 October 2012)
Measurements "confirm an anomalous mass balance in the Karakoram region and indicate that the contribution of Karakoram glaciers to sea-level rise was -0.01 mm/year for the period from 1999 to 2008"... Read More
The Greening at the Forest-Tundra Ecotone in Subarctic Quebec (2 October 2012)
"Numerous seedlings observed during the ground truthing suggest that shrub densification should continue in the future," as the warming- and CO2-induced greening of planet Earth continues... Read More
Northern Scandinavian Summer Temperatures of the Past Two Millennia (2 October 2012)
How does the level of 20th-century warmth compare with that of earlier warm periods?... Read More
Direct Anthropogenic Threats to Malaysian Corals (2 October 2012)
They make the largely hypothetical threats of CO2-induced climate change and ocean acidification pale in comparison... Read More
Red Foxes have Not Replaced Arctic Foxes in the Northern Yukon (2 October 2012)
Contrary to predictions, red foxes have not replaced arctic foxes in the northern Yukon tundra over the last 40 years, despite significant warming... Read More
Warming Enhances Reproduction of Intertidal New Zealand Crabs (3 October 2012)
How so? A new study describes a number of different ways the enhancement is accomplished... Read More
The Holocene Climate of the North Atlantic Region (3 October 2012)
What does it reveal about the Dark Ages Cold Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age? ... and what do those things imply about the nature of 20th century global warming?... Read More
Coping with Heat Waves and Droughts in a Future Warmer World (3 October 2012)
Earth's plants are up to the task of surviving what climate alarmists are predicting for them... Read More
The "Little" Medieval Warm Period in the Bahamas (3 October 2012)
Temperatures in the Bahamas were about the same as (or even greater than) they are today in the mid- to late- 1500s, suggesting that there is nothing unusual, unnatural or unprecedented about today's temperatures there... Read More
Better Models Needed to Link Extreme Weather to Global Warming (3 October 2012)
A recent Nature editorial appears to have accepted the tenuous link between extreme weather events and anthropogenic global warming without thoroughly examining the climatology of extreme weather events... Read More
Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in a CO2-Enriched Sweetgum Plantation (9 October 2012)
The results of an eleven-year experiment reveal the long-term soil carbon sequestration potential of Earth's trees, where "C inputs from relatively deep roots under elevated CO2 may increase the potential for long-term soil C storage"... Read More
The MWP at the Tivoli North Bay of New York's Hudson Estuary (9 October 2012)
The case for a global Medieval Warm Period continues to grow with the findings revealed at this new location... Read More
Phytoremediation of Cadmium-Contaminated Soil: The Role of CO2 (9 October 2012)
The authors of this study suggest that "the use of elevated CO2 may be a useful way to improve phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated soil by S. alfredii." And as the air's CO2 content continues its upward climb, the job of the hyper-accumulating plants will gradually become ever more efficient and effective... Read More
Simulating the Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue (9 October 2012)
A plethora of problems haunt IPCC AR4 coupled GCMs... Read More
The Importance of Long-Term Temperature and CO2 Data (10 October 2012)
Clearly, the air's CO2 content is not a major driver of Earth's temperature. In fact, it may not even be a minor driver... Read More
The Vegetative Status of the Circumpolar Arctic Tundra (10 October 2012)
How has it changed over the past three decades? It appears that the total aboveground phytomass of the entire Arctic tundra increased by 19.8%... Read More
Glaciers of the Russian High Arctic (10 October 2012)
For the part of the world that is claimed by climate alarmists to be warming faster than almost any other place on Earth - except, perhaps, the Antarctic Peninsula - it is interesting to see that the glaciers of the Russian High Arctic are not wasting away before our very eyes... Read More
A Warming Bias in the U.S. Temperature Record??? (10 October 2012)
It may be that the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia is not the only institution that needs to have the validity of its temperature adjustments audited... Read More
Initial Testing of IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Climate Models (16 October 2012)
How well do they perform on a decadal basis?... Read More
Biofuels: Going from Useless to Harmful (16 October 2012)
Enough serious work has been conducted on the growing, harvesting and processing of the raw materials that can be transformed into biofuels to indicate that they are essentially useless when it comes to doing what they are supposed to do, which is to lead to less anthropogenic-induced CO2 emissions to the atmosphere; and now a paper comes along that suggests that biofuels actually have a net negative impact on Earth's biosphere... Read More
The Unseen Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (16 October 2012)
The last of a number of studies of the roots of sour orange trees grown for 17 years in both normal ambient and CO2-enriched air tell the story... Read More
Cold-Water Corals Trumping Ocean Acidification: How Is It Done? (16 October 2012)
When the pH of the seawater in which they live drops too low, the corals up-regulate their internal pH to a value that allows calcification to occur under circumstances that would normally lead to the dissolution of their exposed carbonate skeletons... Read More
The Weather Research and Forecasting Model: Turning a Weather Model into a Climate Model (16 October 2012)
A recent paper by Liang et al. (2012) demonstrates that a relatively new weather prediction model can be turned into a climate model. While their experiment shows some success in better replicating the geographic distributions and the seasonal/interannual variability of important climate quantities like precipitation and surface temperature, the improvement was not universal and only marginally skillful... Read More
A 654-Year Streamflow History of Argentina's Neuquen River (17 October 2012)
Although "the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 years," the authors of this paper report that "longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries"... Read More
Newly-Discovered Wheat Genes Up-Regulated by Heat and Drought (17 October 2012)
The two stresses, acting together, activate stress-related genes in addition to those up-regulated by the two stresses acting individually... Read More
Recent Temperature Trends of Antarctica's Western Ross Sea (17 October 2012)
They are not exactly what one would expect in a rapidly warming world... Read More
Effects of Warming and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Wheat Photosynthesis and Biomass Production (17 October 2012)
The findings of this paper are perhaps best summed up by its title: "Acclimation to future atmospheric CO2 levels increases photochemical efficiency and mitigates photochemistry inhibition by warm temperatures in wheat"... Read More
With a Hint and a Nudge, Climate Model Downscaling Can be Improved (17 October 2012)
Downscaling is a way of regionalizing, in a meaningful way, the results of coarser global general circulation model simulations. Otte et al. (2012) show this technique can be improved upon by using a numerical method called "nudging". If applied gently within the grid, nudging resulted in a better climate simulation with the more realistic occurrence of extremes... Read More
Global Warming Produces Smarter Young Lizards (23 October 2012)
Two Australian researchers report that "hot-incubated lizards achieved higher learning scores than did cold-incubated lizards," and that "the number of errors they made decreased more from the first to the second half of the trials than was the case for cold-incubated lizards"... Read More
How Earth's Coral Reefs Respond to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (23 October 2012)
A new study along the length of Australia's Great Barrier Reef provides some important insights, leading the authors to conclude that "the flexibility in community composition that we document along latitudinal environmental gradients indicates that climate change is likely to result in a re-assortment of coral reef taxa rather than wholesale loss of entire reef ecosystems" ... Read More
2000 Years of Extra-Tropical Northern Hemispheric Temperatures (23 October 2012)
This newest work of Christiansen and Ljungqvist adds significantly to the growing body of real-world evidence that demonstrates both the global nature and temporal consistency of the MWP, as well as the fact that the MWP's peak temperatures throughout the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere rivaled those of the Current Warm Period, even though the atmospheric CO2 concentrations of today are some 40% greater than they were during the MWP, which is highly suggestive of the very real possibility that the warmth of the Current Warm Period may well be due to something other than the current high level of the air's CO2 content... Read More
Impacts of Thawing Permafrost on Nitrogen in Subarctic Peatlands (23 October 2012)
The results of this study "demonstrate that near-surface permafrost soil of subarctic peatlands can release a biologically relevant amount of plant available nitrogen, both directly upon thawing as well as over the course of a growing season through continued microbial mineralization of organically bound N," which given the nitrogen-limited nature of northern peatlands, "may have impacts on both plant productivity and species composition" that would likely consist of significant increases in productivity and ecosystem species richness... Read More
Environmental Change and Potential Trophic Mismatches (24 October 2012)
In many cases, the former need not lead to the latter, for "when stress effects are similar on interacting species, biotic interactions may remain unaffected," providing a fine example of ocean acidification-induced trophic non-mismatches... Read More
The Impact of Atmospheric Aerosols on North Atlantic Climate (24 October 2012)
How great is their influence? The authors of this study report that "inclusion of aerosol-cloud microphysical effects, which were included in few previous multimodel ensembles, dominates the magnitude (80%) and the spatial pattern of the total surface aerosol forcing in the North Atlantic"... Read More
Effects of Ocean Acidification on Juvenile Arctic Pteropods (24 October 2012)
Although much remains to be known about pteropod responses to a potential decline in seawater pH, it would appear from this study that they already possess a certain degree of adaptability to low pH levels... Read More
Evolution to the Rescue (24 October 2012)
Two Canadian scientists say the results of their study "demonstrate that rapid evolution is an important component of the response of small populations to environmental change"... Read More
Butterfly Host Choice in a Warming World (30 October 2012)
Results of this study show that "altered interactions among species do not necessarily constrain distribution changes but can facilitate expansions," thereby providing another real-world example of a previously unappreciated means by which an animal species can actually be benefited by global warming and expand its range of territorial occupancy... Read More
Extreme Precipitation and Flooding Events in the Mediterranean French Alps (30 October 2012)
According to the authors of this study, they determined that for the area under study, "intense precipitation events occurred more frequently during the Little Ice Age than they did during the Medieval Warm Period"... Read More
Ocean Acidification, Marine Food Production, and Calcification (30 October 2012)
In diametrical contradiction of the fears of climate alarmists - the results of this study suggest that "there could be a net increase in capacity for primary productivity at 750 ppm CO2, at least with regard to small diatoms and coccolithophores in coastal environments," where the two types of phytoplankton provide the bulk of current marine primary productivity... Read More
Inshore Turbid Reefs of Australia: How Resilient Are They? (30 October 2012)
A new study reports some encouraging observations -- that "corals on Middle Reef are robust and resilient to their marginal environmental conditions"... Read More
Examining Flow Variability in a Simple Model: Friction in Jet Stream Behavior (30 October 2012)
Zhang et al. (2012) use a simple model to demonstrate internal dynamic variability in an atmosphere with realistic temperature gradients and a jet stream. The model shows annular mode type behavior driven by low frequency/ large-scale waves. The main goals here were to show the importance of larger-scale waves in maintaining jet stream baroclinicity, and a baroclinic mechanism for the cooperation between synoptic and large-scale eddies in maintaining the persistence of annular mode behavior. However, there are larger implications for climate studies... Read More
Net Photosynthesis and Dark Respiration Rates of Norway Spruce Needles after Eight Long Years of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (31 October 2012)
At the end of an eight-year study, the CO2-induced increase in the rate of light-saturated net photosynthesis, due to the approximate 330-ppm increase in the air's CO2 concentration, was about 113% in sunlit trees and 54% in the shaded trees; while the CO2-induced reduction in the rate of dark respiration was about 22% in the sunlit trees and 39% in the shaded trees... Read More
The Medieval Warm Period in Northeast China (31 October 2012)
For yet another part of the planet, that late-20th-century warmth, even with the help of an extra 100 ppm of CO2, was less than that of the MWP, which makes it extremely difficult to believe that Earth's current level of warmth largely owes its existence to anthropogenic CO2 emissions, as the world's climate alarmists continue to claim it does... Read More
European Beech Trees Under Water Stress in Switzerland (31 October 2012)
Populations at the dry limits of their "climate envelope" will not likely disappear if this part of Europe warms and dries as predicted by climate alarmists.... Read More
How Best to "Weatherproof" Earth's Corals Against Warming-Induced Bleaching (31 October 2012)
"Coral reef resilience to climate change may be improved by good local management of coral reefs, including management of water quality"... Read More